By Wolfgang Wagner
The ebook provides an summary of triumphing hydrogeologic stipulations within the Arab heart East including the geologic history. Emphasis is given to relationships among the most good points influencing the hydrogeologic stipulations - neighborhood geologic advancements, paleogeographic stipulations, morphology, weather and paleo-climate - and the ensuing hydrogeologic beneficial properties: formation of aquifers, distribution of significant aquifers, major groundwater movement structures, prevalence of renewable and fossil groundwater. mentioned facts on hydraulic aquifer parameters, recharge charges and groundwater move volumes are evaluated in order to arrive at attribute values lower than the categorical hydrogeologic and weather conditions. the world thought of covers nearly the Arabian Plate. info at the following international locations is incorporated: Bahrain, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, United Arab Emirates, West financial institution and Gaza, Yemen.
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Extra resources for Groundwater in the Arab Middle East
The formation of secondary aquifers is favoured especially by tectonic activities and the presence of rocks which deform by fracturing and not by plastic flow. Secondary aquifers are, in particular, carbonate rocks and consolidated sedimentary or volcanic siliceous rocks. 2 Occurrence of Aquifers 11 and other authors: Burdon cites main periods of high global eustatic sea levels during the Cambrian, Ordovician, Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous, which lasted between 2 and 40 million years. Eustatic rises in sea level “usually resulted in great transgressions of the sea onto continental margins and deep into the heart of the continents.
The graben structures of the rift are accompanied by a system of major faults and flexures. The fault zone crosses the northern Arabian platform and forms, in the Wadi Araba–Red Sea area, the western margin of the Interior Shelf and the Arabian Shield. The eastern part of the northern Arabian platform is characterized prevailingly by plateau landscapes which are, however, interrupted by mountain belts of the Palmyrean zone and the volcanic province of Jebel el Arab and by sedimentary basins, the most extensive of which comprise the depression zones of Wadi Sirhan–Azraq–Yarmouk, Ad Daw–Sabkhet el Mouh.
Groundwater movement in the main aquifer complex, composed of Cretaceous–Tertiary carbonate rocks, is directed generally towards the Euphrates basin in the east. The climate of the southwestern Euphrates catchment area and in the Hamad is prevailingly arid with mean annual precipitation of <100 mm. 5 Gulf–Rub al Khali Basin The Gulf–Rub al Khali basin comprises a huge catchment area with prevailingly arid plateaus and plains without any significant perennial or seasonal surface runoff. Groundwater moves in a multi-aquifer system radially to the Gulf coast with main natural discharge zones in oases and sabkhas.
Groundwater in the Arab Middle East by Wolfgang Wagner