Download e-book for iPad: Applied Cell and Molecular Biology for Engineers by G. Waite, L. Waite

By G. Waite, L. Waite

ISBN-10: 0071509526

ISBN-13: 9780071509527

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18 Structure of the four common alcohols that form esters with phosphatidic acid. The results are common phospholipids which are major components of all biological membranes as shown in Fig. 20. The structure of one such ester, phosphatidylserine, is illustrated in Fig. 19. The dominant phospholipids of biological membranes are composed of phosphatidic acid esterified to the alcohol function of choline, serine, ethanolamine, or inositol. The structures of these molecules are shown in Fig. 18. 19 illustrates the structure of one of the most common phospholipids, phosphatidylserine.

As the temperature of water ice is raised above the Tetrahedrally bonded crystalline ice. The central water molecule is shaded. The broken lines represent hydrogen bonds. 3 Biomolecules 11 freezing point, hydrogen bonds break resulting in the formation of evanescent clusters of hydrogen-bonded molecules that wink in and out of existence as H bonds form and reform with a half-life of about 10 picoseconds (ps). The loss of the stable crystalline structure results in liquid water having a higher density than ice-state water and provides the basis for the fact that ice, with its lower density, always floats in water.

Didactically, proteins are said to have four levels of structure, with the first three levels leading to the three-dimensional configuration of the protein. The first level, or primary structure, simply refers to the linear sequence of amino acids in the structure. The secondary structure reflects the three-dimensional arrangement of the amino acids with respect to its peptide bonded neighbor. The most well-known secondary protein structure is the ␣-helix. 8 shows the structure of hemoglobin, where most of the amino acids form a-helices connected by short nonhelical elements.

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Applied Cell and Molecular Biology for Engineers by G. Waite, L. Waite


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