By David I. Bower
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Extra resources for An Introduction to Polymer Physics
On heating it undergoes the glass transition, followed by crystallisation and finally by melting. 3 Density measurement value. For this reason, DSC is usually preferred to DTA for quantitative work. 3 Density measurement For most pure substances other than polymers the density does not vary signiﬁcantly from one sample to another. As discussed in chapter 5, however, many polymers can be partially crystalline and the degree of crystallinity can have a noticeable eﬀect on their density. Conversely, a knowledge of the density can be useful in assessing the degree of crystallinity.
2). In the simplest possible low-angle light-scattering experiment with a solid polymer, a thin sheet of polymer is placed at right angles to a laser beam and a piece of photographic ﬁlm is placed several centimetres behind the polymer, also at right angles to the laser beam, as shown in ﬁg. 4. A small hole in the ﬁlm allows the undeviated laser beam to pass through the ﬁlm without blackening it. After a suitable exposure time the ﬁlm is developed and the degree of blackening at any point depends on the amount of light scattered in the corresponding direction.
For an p orthorhombic unit cell, ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ﬃ for which all the angles are right angles, dhkl ¼ 1 h2 =a2 þ k2 =b2 þ l 2 =c2 . 9 shows some important planes for the special case of a lattice with a rectangular projection on a plane perpendicular to the c-axis. The sets of integers (hkl) can be imagined to label the points of intersection of three sets of equally spaced parallel planes. It is straightforward to show that these planes can be chosen so that this new lattice, which is then called the reciprocal lattice, has the following property: for all values of h, k and l the line joining the origin of the reciprocal lattice to the point (hkl) is of length 1=dhkl and is normal to the (hkl) planes of the real lattice.
An Introduction to Polymer Physics by David I. Bower