By Leonard Susskind
During the last decade the physics of black holes has been revolutionized by means of advancements that grew out of Jacob Bekenstein s attention that black holes have entropy. Stephen Hawking raised profound matters in regards to the lack of details in black gap evaporation and the consistency of quantum mechanics in an international with gravity. for 2 a long time those questions questioned theoretical physicists and finally ended in a revolution within the manner we expect approximately house, time, topic and knowledge. This revolution has culminated in a striking precept referred to as The Holographic precept , that is now an immense concentration of consciousness in gravitational study, quantum box conception and undemanding particle physics. Leonard Susskind, one of many co-inventors of the Holographic precept in addition to one of many founders of String thought, develops and explains those recommendations.
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Additional info for An Introduction To Black Holes Information And The String Theory
The events in the outer region can send light rays to I + and time-like trajectories to t = ∞. The horizon, as we have seen, is a global concept whose location depends on all future events. It is composed of a family of light rays or null geodesics, passing through each space-time point on the horizon. 12. Notice that null geodesics are vertical after the shell crosses the horizon and essentially at 45o prior to that crossing. These light rays are called the generators of the horizon. Singularity forms XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX The Schwarzschild Black Hole 21 Horizon Shell crosses Horizon Shell of radially moving light-rays Horizon Forms Fig.
In this case Birkoﬀ’s theorem tells us that the geometry outside the shell must be the Schwarzschild geometry. 9. Once again the particular value of Y + chosen for the trajectory is immaterial. 9 the Region A’ is to be discarded. 9 must be glued together. However this must be done so that the “radius” of the local two sphere represented by the angular coordinates (θ, φ) is continuous. In other words, the mathematical identiﬁcation of the boundaries of A and B’ must respect the continuity of the variable r.
In this region the value of r on the horizon grows from an initial value r = 0 to the value r = 2M G at the shell. It is evident from this discussion that the horizon is a global and not a local concept. In the Region A no local quantity will distinguish the presence of the horizon whose occurence is due entirely to the future collapse of the shell. Consider next a distant observer located on a trajectory with r >> 2M G. 11. The distant observer collects information that arrives at any instant from his backward light cone.
An Introduction To Black Holes Information And The String Theory by Leonard Susskind