By David G. Andrews
A quantitative creation to the Earth's surroundings for intermediate-advanced undergraduate and graduate scholars, with an emphasis on underlying actual ideas. This variation has been introduced thoroughly updated, and now encompasses a new bankruptcy at the physics of weather swap which builds upon fabric brought in previous chapters, giving the coed a vast knowing of a few of the actual suggestions underlying this most crucial and topical topic. unlike many different books on atmospheric technological know-how, the emphasis is at the underlying physics. Atmospheric purposes are built customarily within the difficulties given on the finish of every bankruptcy. The booklet is a necessary source for all scholars of atmospheric physics as a part of an atmospheric technology, meteorology, physics, Earth technological know-how, planetary technological know-how, or utilized arithmetic direction.
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Extra info for An Introduction to Atmospheric Physics, Second Edition
P1 p2 d(ln p) Thus the thickness of the layer between two pressure surfaces is proportional to the mean temperature of that layer. 16) 25 Fig. 2 Entropy and potential temperature A cylinder of air of volume V, at pressure p and temperature T, closed by a movable piston (shaded). where δU is the increase of internal energy of the system in the process, δQ is the heat supplied to the system and δW is the work done on the system. 17) where S is the entropy of the system. 18) where H = U + pV is the enthalpy.
Curves of constant pressure can also be plotted; in the range of T and θ relevant for the lower atmosphere, these are almost straight. The isotherms (parallel to the S axis) and the dry adiabatics (parallel to the T axis) are chosen to point at 45◦ above and below the horizontal, respectively, so that the curves of constant p (isobars) become roughly horizontal. 10 are two other sets of curves, related to moisture. The ﬁrst are the lines of constant saturation mixing ratio μs (T, p): these are almost straight and are drawn dashed.
57), at which G is a maximum, corresponds to an unstable equilibrium. 12. 1 μm corresponds to RH 101%. e. e → es . 57) implies that condensation of a small quantity of vapour increases its radius slightly, and so the droplet continues to grow by further condensation. On the other hand, if a small amount of evaporation occurs at the equilibrium radius, the droplet continues to shrink by evaporation, eventually disappearing altogether. 1. 45 Cloud formation Fig. 12 Plot of relative humidity RH = e/es over a spherical droplet in unstable equilibrium, as a function of droplet radius a, at 5 ◦ C.
An Introduction to Atmospheric Physics, Second Edition by David G. Andrews