By Benjamin S. Orlove
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Extra resources for Alpacas, Sheep, and Men. The Wool Export Economy and Regional Society in Southern Peru
These new areas were favored by reduced shipping costs brought about by improvements in sailing ships and later the introduction of 6 The quotation refers directly to the cotton textile industry, but Hobsbawm (1968) also states that similar structure prevailed in other industries; other sources show that they did in the case of wool. 7 See Blau (1946), Clapham (1907), Hobsbawm (1968), Landes (1965), Münz (1950), Ponting (1961), Sigsworth (1958), and Smith and Haile (1929). 26 The History of the World Wool Market steamships.
Exports of raw wool continued to be dominant until about 1550, when textiles, chiefly heavy woolens, became the major form of wool export. Stimulated by the demand, wool prices rose rapidly. The trend toward increased wool manufacture in England favored the conversion to pasture of both agricultural land and land, such as forests and marshes, not previously put to intensive use. The famous enclosure movement greatly increased the availability of grazing land and hence the production of wool. Because former agricultural land provided better pasture than the more marginal areas to which sheep had previously been restricted, the quality of wool changed correspondingly, becoming coarser and somewhat longer in staple.
Like these two theories, it looks at large-scale processes and links social, economic, and political phenomena. It addresses the transformations generated by the growth of export economies and the expansion of national governments. It presupposes neither evolutionary nor revolutionary changes, however, and favors neither internal nor external dynamics. New elements from outside or a sudden shift in the internal balance of sectors may bring rapid change, but slower, steadier change from internal and external sources is also possible.
Alpacas, Sheep, and Men. The Wool Export Economy and Regional Society in Southern Peru by Benjamin S. Orlove