By Friederike Moltmann
Summary gadgets were a principal subject in philosophy considering antiquity. Philosophers have defended a variety of perspectives approximately summary gadgets by way of attractive to metaphysical issues, concerns relating to arithmetic or technological know-how, and, no longer on occasion, intuitions approximately typical language. This booklet pursues the query of the way and no matter if ordinary language permits connection with summary gadgets in a completely systematic method. by way of making complete use of latest linguistic semantics, it provides a miles higher diversity of linguistic generalizations than has formerly been considered in philosophical discussions, and it argues for an ontological photo is especially diversified from that regularly taken with no consideration via philosophers and semanticists alike. connection with summary gadgets comparable to houses, numbers, propositions, and levels is significantly extra marginal than in general held. as a substitute, typical language is very beneficiant in permitting connection with particularized homes (tropes), using nonreferential expressions in obvious referential place, and using "nominalizing expressions," resembling quantifiers like "something." connection with summary items is accomplished commonly basically by way of 'reifying terms', equivalent to "the quantity eight."
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Extra info for Abstract Objects and the Semantics of Natural Language
64) a. John cannot distinguish the students. b. John cannot distinguish the class. (65) a. The students are similar. b. The class is similar. (66) a. John counted the students. b. John counted the group of students (except if it means that John counted “one”). (67) a. The students are numerous. b. The class is numerous.  Predicates of existence With deﬁnite plurals, the verb exist can claim only the existence of members of the plurality, not the existence of the plurality as an entity “beyond” its members.
John cannot distinguish the class. (65) a. The students are similar. b. The class is similar. (66) a. John counted the students. b. John counted the group of students (except if it means that John counted “one”). (67) a. The students are numerous. b. The class is numerous.  Predicates of existence With deﬁnite plurals, the verb exist can claim only the existence of members of the plurality, not the existence of the plurality as an entity “beyond” its members. By contrast, when exist occurs with collective NPs, it can claim the existence of a collective entity as such: (68) a.
14 Such predicates generally describe just relations among the individual members of the plurality (or among subpluralities), rather than expressing a property of the plurality as such. This is why they can be predicated of pluralities as property-resistant entities. Property-resistant kinds and pluralities do not behave the same with respect to the predicate exist. With pluralities, exist claims the existence of all the members of the collection; it cannot claim the existence of the collection as such, as an entity “beyond” the individual members.
Abstract Objects and the Semantics of Natural Language by Friederike Moltmann