By Alan Mitchell, Jean-Paul Mouchet
This functional guide brings jointly a variety of bibliographic details on irregular pressures and provides the sensible event of the authors and diverse specialists inside of Elf-Aquitaine. essentially destined for daily use through subsurface geologists and drilling engineers anyplace they're faced with the issues of overpressure, it describes a number of the origins of strain anomalies, and info the equipment to be had for his or her prediction, detection and review. it is going to even be worthy to petroleum geologists, petroleum engineers and reservoir engineers as a reference handbook.
checklist of imperative Abbreviations
desk of Contents
1. strain thoughts
2. The Origins of Non-Hydrostatic irregular Pressures
three. Prediction and Detection
four. Quantitative strain assessment
five. precis and total Conclusions - aid Chart
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Extra resources for Abnormal Pressures while Drilling - Origins, Prediction, Detection, Evaluation
34. 56 - Cameroon). - Abnormal pressures associated with diapirs. 34) : palaeopressure due to uplifting previously deep-lying formations to shallower depths (A), confinement of pierced layers (B), isolated "rafts" on the top of the diapir (C). Because the overburden pressure transmitted to such isolated formations is omnidirectional, significant overpressure will develop within them (salt domes), pressure transfer from the undercompacted clays to the pierced reservoirs (D), osmotic effects due to raised salinity in the water of formations close to the salt dome (E).
19). 1 ............ B;oBF. I go ........................... 80 - _------ Interstitial water ______- -------- Fig. 19. - Volume of fluid expelled during compaction of an argillaceous sediment. A reduction in clay porosity is accompanied by an increase in bulk density. Measurements of clay porosity and density form the basis of the study of compaction. To summarize, normal clay compaction is the result of an overall balance between the following variables : - clay permeability, - sedimentation and burial rate, - drainage efficiency.
Geochemical fossils Fig. 27. - Hydrocarbon generation as a function of temperature and depth (modified from Tissot & Welte, 1978, and Kartsev, 1971). As compaction proceeds and less water is expelled, decomposing organic matter would tend to cause the water to become saturated in gas and eventually produce free gas. If this gas is unable to escape it causes abnormal pressure (HEDBERG, 1974). Pressure anomalies and undercompaction due simply to the overburden effect will be magnified if gaseous hydrocarbons are generated at the same time.
Abnormal Pressures while Drilling - Origins, Prediction, Detection, Evaluation by Alan Mitchell, Jean-Paul Mouchet